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I love Esperanto’s correlatives

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That’s from Jirka Hanna’s Esperanto grammar, which is presented in outline form.

In addition the the basic correlatives, two particles are used to modify the thrust of some:

The particle ajn (pronounced like the “Ein” in “Einstein) is used mainly with relative KI-words, but it is also used with I-words and ĈI-words, and occasionally with NENI-words. Ajn is always placed after the table word it concerns. (See this article at

kiu = who, which; kiu ajn = whoever, whichever
kio = what; kio ajn = whatever
kia = what kind; kia ajn = whatever kind
kies = whose; kies ajn = whoever’s
kie = where; kie ajn = wherever
kiam = when; kiam ajn = whenever
kial = why; kial ajn = whysoever
kiel = how; kiel ajn = however
kiom = how much; kiom ajn = however much

And examples of other uses:

io = anything; io ajn = anything at all
ie = anywhere; ie ajn = anywhere at all
nenio = none; nenio ajn = none whatsoever

The other useful particle is ĉi (pronounced “chee”), used with ti- words:

tiu = that one; ĉi tiu = this one
tio = that; ĉi tio = this
tia = that kind; ĉi tia = this kind
tie = there; ĉi tie = here
tiam = then (that time); ĉi tiam = now (this time)
tial = for that reason, therefore; ĉi tial = for this reason; herefore
tiel = in that manner; ĉi tiel = in this manner
tiom = that much; ĉi tiom = this much

I just wanted to share that because the correlatives seem so nifty.

Written by Leisureguy

29 April 2020 at 8:33 am

Posted in Esperanto

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