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Archive for June 5th, 2021

Nestlé Document Says Majority of Its Food Portfolio is Unhealthy

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The Financial Times article is behind a paywall, but Slashdot has a quote posted by msmash:

The world’s largest food company, Nestlé, has acknowledged that more than 60% of its mainstream food and drinks products do not meet a “recognised definition of health” and that “some of our categories and products will never be ‘healthy’ no matter how much we renovate.” Financial Times:

A presentation circulated among top executives this year, seen by the Financial Times, says only 37 per cent of Nestlé’s food and beverages by revenues, excluding products such as pet food and specialised medical nutrition, achieve a rating above 3.5 under Australia’s health star rating system. This system scores foods out of five stars and is used in research by international groups such as the Access to Nutrition Foundation. Nestlé, the maker of KitKats, Maggi noodles, and Nescafe, describes the 3.5 star threshold as a “recognised definition of health.”

Within its overall food and drink portfolio, about 70 per cent of Nestlé’s food products failed to meet that threshold, the presentation said, along with 96 per cent of beverages — excluding pure coffee — and 99 per cent of Nestlé’s confectionery and ice cream portfolio. Water and dairy products scored better, with 82 per cent of waters and 60 per cent of dairy meeting the threshold.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 9:38 pm

New batch of tempeh started

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I reread the original recipe, and I’m making a few modifications for this new batch (2 cups uncooked soybeans).

  1. As before, once the beans were done, I spread them on a clean dishtowel so I can more easily dry them. They also cool faster. It makes no difference if they cool even down to room temperature, since they will get to incubation temperature quickly once they’re in the incubator.
  2. I didn’t add vinegar to the water toward the end of cooking, as she suggests. (I’ll do that next time, since the vinegar was not so much absorbed by the beans.) Instead of adding vinegar to the cooking water, I added 4 Tbsp vinegar to the dried beans. That was a mistake: 2 Tbsp per cup is what you add if you’re adding the vinegar to the cooking water for the last 10 minutes. If you add vinegar to the dried beans, the correct ration is 1 Tbsp per cup of dried beans. I stirred the beans to coat with vinegar, added the culture, and stirred again.
    .
    Because I had added twice the recommended amount of vinegar, there was excess vinegar pooled in the bottom of the bowl. I discarded that after transferring the beans to the fresh-produce bag. Because  tempeh prefers drier beans, adding vinegar to the cooking water toward the end and then drying the beans (with no added liquid) will probably work better.
  3. As I did last time, I used a Ziploc fresh-produce bag, but this time I spread the beans out to fill the bag completely as it lies on its side. As a result, the layer of beans is not so thick as the previous batch. I think the thinner layer might work better. We’ll see.
  4. On re-reading her post, I decided to go with 88ºF (31ºC) for the first 12 hours then dial it down to 77ºF (25ºC) for the remainder of the fermentation.

I’ll note how it goes. Start time is 5 June 8:30pm.

Update – 7 June 8:30pm

When I discarded the excess vinegar, it took with it some of the culture, so this batch started slower than usual. But by 8:30am this morning (7 June, so 36 hours after starting the batch), the mold was visible in a few spots. I dropped the thermostat setting from 88ºF to 77ºF immediately. That was 12 hours ago, and the tempeh is doing very well. The entire layer of beans is now covered with white mold. I think the lower temperature once the mold takes hold is a good idea. I’ll post a photo tomorrow morning (in 12 hours), but I play to let it run for another 24 hours from now.

Update 8 June 8:30am

I think I’ve cracked the code. It’s looking very good. The white that looks sort of like steam is the mold. Another day and it will be ready. You can see how I spread the soybeans (2 cups uncooked beans, after cooking) so that it filled the Ziploc fresh-produce bag lying on its side. Those bags seem perfect for making tempeh. In the photo ou can see the grid of tiny holes by how they affect the mold.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 8:55 pm

The Republican Party is a clear and present danger to American democracy

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Heather Cox Richardson writes:

Today, Katie Benner of the New York Times broke the story that former president Trump tried to use the Department of Justice to try to overturn the results of the 2020 election. Five emails provided to Congress show Trump’s chief of staff, Mark Meadows, asking the acting attorney general, Jeffrey A. Rosen, in December, to investigate rumors of voter fraud. One of the fantastical stories Meadows wanted investigated was the story that “people in Italy had used military technology and satellites to remotely tamper with voting machines in the United States and switch votes for Mr. Trump to votes for Joseph R. Biden Jr.”

The Department of Justice is not the president’s to command. It is supposed to enforce the laws of the United States and administer justice. The office of the president has its own lawyer—the White House counsel—and the president can also have their own personal representation. That Trump tried to use our own Department of Justice to overturn the will of the American voters is eye-popping.

But that was not the only news of the day. We also learned that the Texas attorney general, Ken Paxton, told Trump advisor Steven Bannon on a public show that had he not been able to block a great deal of mail-in voting in 2020, Biden would have won Texas.

We also learned that Oregon Representative Mike Nearman, who was already in trouble for opening the doors of the Oregon Capitol to anti–coronavirus restriction rioters on December 21, held a meeting beforehand, on December 16, to plot the event. An attendee filmed the talk, which set up “Operation Hall Pass.” That operation ultimately opened the Oregon capitol building to far-right rioters, who endangered the entire legislature. The video, which shows Nearman winking and nodding at setting up the invasion, has raised questions about whether other Republicans worked with insurrectionists in other settings.

It is an odd day for these stories to come to light. 

Seventy-seven years ago today, on June 5, 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was preparing to send Allied troops, who fought for democracy, across the English Channel to France. There, he hoped, they would push the German troops, who fought for an authoritarian fascist state, back across Europe, securing a victory for democracy over authoritarianism. 

More than 5,000 ships waited to transport more than 150,000 soldiers to France before daybreak the following morning. The fighting to take Normandy would not be easy. The beaches the men would assault were tangled in barbed wire, booby trapped, and defended by German soldiers in concrete bunkers.

On the afternoon of June 5, as the Allied soldiers, their faces darkened with soot and cocoa, milled around waiting to board the ships, Eisenhower went to see the men he was almost certainly sending to their deaths. He joked with the troops, as apparently upbeat as his orders to them had been when he told them Operation Overlord had launched. “The tide has turned!” his letter read. “The free men of the world are marching together to Victory!”

But after cheering his men on, he went back to his headquarters and wrote another letter. Designed to blame himself alone if Operation Overlord failed, it read:

“Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based upon the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that Bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone.”

The letter was, of course, never delivered. Operation Overlord was a success, launching the final assault in which western democracy, defended by ordinary men and women, would destroy European fascism.

U.S. Army photograph, 1944, Library of Congress

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 8:07 pm

Fake Nudes and Real Threats: How Online Abuse Holds Back Women in Politics

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Emma Goldberg reports in the NY Times:

— Julia Gillard, Australia’s first, and only, female prime minister, in a 2019 interview

The first year that more than two women simultaneously served in the U.S. Senate was 1992. It was dubbed the “Year of the Woman.”

Decades later, women now make up nearly a quarter of that legislative body. But as female representation grows, so do efforts to undermine it.

Researchers have found that female politicians tend to face more personal online attacks than their male counterparts, with social media posts that double down on character and sexuality rather than the politicians’ work. A 2016 global survey of female parliamentarians found that 42 percent of the respondents had seen “extremely humiliating or sexually charged” images of themselves shared on the internet. And another study found that immediately following Kamala Harris’s selection as Joseph R. Biden’s running mate in the 2020 presidential election, false claims were shared about Ms. Harris 3,000 times per hour on Twitter.

“The social media environment is so gendered and full of vile material when it comes to women politicians,” Julia Gillard, Australia’s first and only female prime minister, said in a 2019 interview.

It has also become increasingly clear that what begins as disinformation — a photoshopped image, a skewed piece of data — can escalate into offline violence. And that combination of online disinformation and offline threats can make many women question whether they even want to enter politics in the first place.

“It affects women’s willingness to be in public spaces, speak freely and participate in public discourse,” said Lucina Di Meco, an expert on gender and disinformation.

Online attacks on women frequently reference tropes that existed long before the internet, depicting women as mentally unstable or hyper-sexual. “It’s all the same racist and sexist dog whistles now magnified and supercharged anonymously across social media networks,” said Arisha Hatch, vice president and chief of campaigns of the civil rights organization Color of Change.

In Brazil, when the country’s first female president, Dilma Rousseff, faced impeachment in 2016, following allegations of corruption and manipulation aimed at covering up the country’s financial crisis, the tabloids ran unfavorable photos of her, with her fists clenched or mouth wide open, in a concerted effort to turn public opinion against her, according to Mona Lena Krook, a professor of political science at Rutgers University.

“The tabloids made it look like she was having a mental breakdown,” Dr. Krook said. “It plays into the idea that women are too emotional for politics.”

Another approach paints female politicians as hyper-sexualized. That was what former President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic of Croatia encountered when tabloids ran pictures of another woman in a bikini and falsely claimed it was her. The photo’s subject was later identified as Coco Austin, the partner of American rapper Ice-T — but the damage to Ms. Grabar-Kitarovic’s reputation was done.

“If people aren’t critical and willing to take a moment to assess whether a story or image is real, the effects end up getting magnified,” Dr. Krook said.

Other female leaders have also found themselves the target of fake nude photos, like the former Ukrainian parliament member, Svitlana Zalishchuk, and a Rwandan female presidential candidate, Diane Rwigara. “It is one of many tactics that has been used to silence me,” Ms. Rwigara told CNN in 2017.

Once the disinformation is out there, it is difficult to counter, says Dr. Krook: It is hard to ensure a retraction reaches everyone who saw the inaccurate post, and even if it is seen, it might not change minds. Disinformation spreads rapidly, Dr. Krook added, because it taps into and reinforces existing sexist beliefs about female political leaders.

With social media, attacks on high-profile women can occur at an unprecedented scale, often anonymously and with impunity. And only in recent years have policymakers begun to focus on the risks that women face because of these online attacks, by publicly addressing them and accounting for them in policymaking.

Last fall, federal and state authorities revealed a detailed plot to kidnap Governor Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan. Ms. Whitmer had become a target of right-wing and anti-government activists because of measures she had taken to slow the spread of the coronavirus. The group that plotted the kidnapping spied on Ms. Whitmer’s vacation home, met regularly for firearms and combat training, and made plans to buy explosives.

But the kidnapping plot didn’t start in the basement where they held their meetings; its flames were fanned on the internet, according to Kristina Wilfore, an adjunct professor at George Washington University. The plot was preceded by weeks of online campaigns spreading disinformation about Ms. Whitmer. Right-wing social media accounts created memes depicting her frothing at the mouth or as a dominatrix shooting lasers from her eyes. At the time, President Donald J. Trump had urged his supporters on Twitter to “Liberate Michigan!”

“It was a cynical way to make her the poster child of accusations of Covid overreach,” Ms. Wilfore said. “The fact that the plot was aimed at a female governor was no accident.”

Republican legislators in Michigan recently introduced a bill that would require Ms. Whitmer to provide detailed notice when leaving the state, which the State Senate approved despite security concerns raised by Democrats.

The plot against Ms. Whitmer made apparent the high stakes of online conspiracy theories. “This is a very clear example of how misinformation that is fueled by sexism can lead to real-life consequences for women, and women in politics in particular,” said Ms. Di Meco.

Ms. Di Meco added that the same link between online disinformation and offline violence was visible on Jan 6., when tens of thousands of Trump supporters rioted at the Capitol after weeks of sharing fraudulent theories on Facebook and Parler discrediting Mr. Biden’s presidential victory.

With a new administration in power, some experts say that the moment is ripe for a more concerted national effort to counter online disinformation, particularly its pernicious effects on women. The Biden administration has committed to creating a National Task Force on Online Harassment and Abuse, which would study the link between online abuse and violence against women.

And last August, 100 American female lawmakers, including Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Tammy Baldwin, along with current and former legislators from around the world, wrote a letter to Facebook urging the site to take action to protect female politicians from online attacks, including by taking down posts threatening violence and removing manipulated images or videos of female public figures.

“Make no mistake,” the letter read, “These tactics . . .

Continue reading.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 4:13 pm

Posted in Daily life, Politics

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Where Gender-Neutral Pronouns Come From

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Michael Waters writes in the Atlantic:

On a frigid January day, Ella Flagg Young—the first woman to serve as superintendent of the Chicago public-school system—took the stage in front of a room of school principals and announced that she had come up with a new solution to an old problem. “I have simply solved a need that has been long impending,” she said. “The English language is in need of a personal pronoun of the third person, singular number, that will indicate both sexes and will thus eliminate our present awkwardness of speech.” Instead of he or she, or his or her, Young proposed that schools adopt a version that blended the two: he’erhis’er, and him’er.

It was 1912, and Young’s idea drew gasps from the principals, according to newspaper reports from the time. When Young used his’er in a sentence, one shouted, “Wh-what was that? We don’t quite understand what that was you said.”

Young was actually borrowing the pronouns from an insurance broker named Fred S. Pond, who had invented them the year prior. But in the subsequent weeks, her proposal became a national news story, earning baffled write-ups in the Chicago Tribune and the Associated Press. Some embraced the new pronouns—but many dismissed them as an unnecessary linguistic complication, and others despaired that the introduction of gender-neutral pronouns would precipitate an end to language as they knew it. An editor for Harper’s Weekly, for instance, insisted that “when ‘man’ ceases to include women we shall cease to need a language.”

Today’s gender-neutral English-language pronouns make space not just for two genders, but for many more, serving as a way for people who fall outside the binary of “man” and “woman” to describe themselves. In recent years especially, they’ve become a staple of dating apps, college campuses, and email signatures. In 2020, a Trevor Project survey found that one in four LGBTQ youth uses pronouns other than he/him and she/her, and the American Dialect Society named the singular they its word of the decade.

Meanwhile, commentators have forecast the demise of language once again. A 2018 Wall Street Journal op-ed went so far as to claim that using they/them pronouns amounted to “sacrilege,” and an Australian politician said that an effort to celebrate they/them pronouns was “political correctness gone mad.” Last month, after the singer Demi Lovato came out as nonbinary, a conservative commentator called they/them pronouns “poor grammar” and an example of “low academic achievement.” Bundled into these arguments is the idea that gender-neutral pronouns are a new phenomenon, an outgrowth of the internet that is only now spreading into other spheres—suggesting that the gender fluidity they describe is also a fad.

Until relatively recently, gender-neutral pronouns were something people used to describe others—mixed groups, or individuals whose gender was unknown—not something people used to describe themselves. But even though people did not, in Young’s time, personally identify as nonbinary in the way we understand it today (though some identified as “neuter”), neutral pronouns existed—as did an understanding that the language we had to describe gender was insufficient. For more than three centuries, at least, English speakers have yearned for more sophisticated ways to talk about gender.

Likely the oldest gender-neutral pronoun in the English language is the singular they, which was, for centuries, a common way to identify a person whose gender was indefinite. For a time in the 1600s, medical texts even referred to individuals who did not accord with binary gender standards as they/them. The pronoun’s fortunes were reversed only in the 18th century, when the notion that the singular they was grammatically incorrect came into vogue among linguists.

In place of they, though, came a raft of new pronouns. According to Dennis Baron, a professor emeritus of English at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who wrote the definitive history of gender-neutral pronouns in his book What’s Your Pronoun?, English speakers have proposed 200 to 250 pronouns since the 1780s. Although most petered out almost immediately after their introduction, a few took on lives of their own.

Thon—short for that one—has resurfaced frequently since an attorney named Charles Converse first introduced it as a more elegant way of writing he or she. Converse claimed to have coined the word as far back as 1858, but it didn’t actually appear publicly in a magazine until 1884. The word made a splash in

Continue reading.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 2:29 pm

Little dogwood, big blossoms

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When The Wife mentioned that this little dogwood had enormous blossoms, I pointed out that it is growing at Costco, in their parking lot. Stands to reason the blossoms would be huge.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 1:58 pm

Posted in Daily life

Improved recipe for tempeh breakfast sausage

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I found that the tempeh sausage patties were somewhat fragile and tended to break apart when turned. The problem worsened when I included minced mushrooms. I was thinking of trying one beaten egg mixed into the sausage to act as a binder when The Eldest suggested using a small amount of chia seed soaked in water.

When you do soak chia seed you get a kind of gelatinous paste. That might work to hold the sausage together. Moreover, I would then get the benefit of chia seeds (good fiber, good source of omega-3, an excellent protein profile, and high in nutrients) and also avoid the nutritional drawbacks of eggs.

I tried it, and it worked. I have modified the recipe, with modifications in bold. I am now going to try including 1=2 mushrooms in Batch 2 (which is processed to a paste).

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 12:32 pm

A $200,000 bonsai being spruced up

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It’s interesting to see the difference a brief trimming can make in a bonsai’s appearance, especially when done by someone who knows what he’s doing:

And just to be clear: bonsai does NOT require expensive plants (or costly tools, like this pair of $35,000 bonsai scissors):

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 10:30 am

Posted in Art, Daily life, History, Memes

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Evolution unleashed: Revolution in the making?

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Kevin Lalan, professor of behavioural and evolutionary biology at the University of St Andrews in Scotland, an elected fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a fellow of the Society of Biology, and co-author (with Tobias Uller) of Evolutionary Causation: Biological and Philosophical Reflections (2019), writes in Aeon:

When researchers at Emory University in Atlanta trained mice to fear the smell of almonds (by pairing it with electric shocks), they found, to their consternation, that both the children and grandchildren of these mice were spontaneously afraid of the same smell. That is not supposed to happen. Generations of schoolchildren have been taught that the inheritance of acquired characteristics is impossible. A mouse should not be born with something its parents have learned during their lifetimes, any more than a mouse that loses its tail in an accident should give birth to tailless mice.

If you are not a biologist, you’d be forgiven for being confused about the state of evolutionary science. Modern evolutionary biology dates back to a synthesis that emerged around the 1940s-60s, which married Charles Darwin’s mechanism of natural selection with Gregor Mendel’s discoveries of how genes are inherited. The traditional, and still dominant, view is that adaptations – from the human brain to the peacock’s tail – are fully and satisfactorily explained by natural selection (and subsequent inheritance). Yet as novel ideas flood in from genomics, epigenetics and developmental biology, most evolutionists agree that their field is in flux. Much of the data implies that evolution is more complex than we once assumed.

Some evolutionary biologists, myself included, are calling for a broader characterisation of evolutionary theory, known as the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). A central issue is whether what happens to organisms during their lifetime – their development – can play important and previously unanticipated roles in evolution. The orthodox view has been that developmental processes are largely irrelevant to evolution, but the EES views them as pivotal. Protagonists with authoritative credentials square up on both sides of this debate, with big-shot professors at Ivy League universities and members of national academies going head-to-head over the mechanisms of evolution. Some people are even starting to wonder if a revolution is on the cards.

In his book On Human Nature (1978), the evolutionary biologist Edward O Wilson claimed that human culture is held on a genetic leash. The metaphor was contentious for two reasons. First, as we’ll see, it’s no less true that culture holds genes on a leash. Second, while there must be a genetic propensity for cultural learning, few cultural differences can be explained by underlying genetic differences.

Nonetheless, the phrase has explanatory potential. Imagine a dog-walker (the genes) struggling to retain control of a brawny mastiff (human culture). The pair’s trajectory (the pathway of evolution) reflects the outcome of the struggle. Now imagine the same dog-walker struggling with multiple dogs, on leashes of varied lengths, with each dog tugging in different directions. All these tugs represent the influence of developmental factors, including epigenetics, antibodies and hormones passed on by parents, as well as the ecological legacies and culture they bequeath.

The struggling dog-walker is a good metaphor for how EES views the adaptive process. Does this require a revolution in evolution? Before we can answer this question, we need to examine how science works. The best authorities here are not biologists but philosophers and historians of science. Thomas Kuhn’s book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) popularised the idea that sciences change through revolutions in understanding. These ‘paradigm shifts’ were thought to follow a crisis of confidence in the old theory that arose through the accumulation of conflicting data.

Then there’s Karl Popper, and his conjecture that scientific theories can’t be proven but can be falsified. Consider the hypothesis: ‘All sheep are white.’ Popper maintained that no amount of positive findings consistent with this hypothesis could prove it to be correct, since one could never rule out the chance that a conflicting data-point might arise in the future; conversely, the observation of a single black sheep would decisively prove the hypothesis to be false. He maintained that scientists should strive to carry out critical experiments that could potentially falsify their theories.

While Kuhn and Popper’s ideas are well-known, they remain disputed and contentious in the eyes of philosophers and historians. Contemporary thinking in these fields is better captured by the Hungarian philosopher Imre Lakatos in The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes (1978):

The history of science refutes both Popper and Kuhn: on close inspection both Popperian crucial experiments and Kuhnian revolutions turn out to be myths.

Popper’s arguments might make logical sense, but they don’t quite map on to how science works in the real world. Scientific observations are susceptible to errors of measurement; scientists are human beings and get attached to their theories; and scientific ideas can be fiendishly complex – all of which makes evaluating scientific hypotheses a messy business. Rather than accepting that our hypotheses might be wrong, we challenge the methodology (‘That sheep’s not black – your instruments are faulty’), dispute the interpretation (‘The sheep’s just dirty’), or come up with tweaks to our hypotheses (‘I meant domesticated breeds, not wild mouflon’). Lakatos called such fixes and fudges ‘auxiliary hypotheses’; scientists propose them to ‘protect’ their core ideas, so that they need not be rejected.

This sort of behaviour is clearly manifest in scientific debates over evolution. Take the idea that new features acquired by an organism during its life can be passed on to the next generation. This hypothesis was brought to prominence in the early 1800s by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who used it to explain how species evolved. However, it has long been regarded as discredited by experiment – to the point that the term ‘Lamarckian’ has a derogatory connotation in evolutionary circles, and any researchers expressing sympathy for the idea effectively brand themselves ‘eccentric’. The received wisdom is that parental experiences can’t affect the characters of their offspring.

Except they do. The way that genes are expressed to produce an organism’s phenotype – the actual characteristics it ends up with – is affected by chemicals that attach to them. Everything from diet to air pollution to parental behaviour can influence the addition or removal of these chemical marks, which switches genes on or off. Usually these so-called ‘epigenetic’ attachments are removed during the production of sperm and eggs cells, but it turns out that some escape the resetting process and are passed on to the next generation, along with the genes. This is known as ‘epigenetic inheritance’, and more and more studies are confirming that it really happens.

Let’s return to the almond-fearing mice. The inheritance of . . .

Continue reading. There’s much more.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 10:22 am

Yeah, it was the blade

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Yesterday’s shave produced a few nicks on my upper lip — extremely out of character for the Baby Smooth and also rare nowadays with any of my razors. I speculated that it was due to the blade — some brands of blades get very nicky as they expire (especially blades that are fans of Dylan Thomas) — so I removed the old blade (a Treet Platinum, generally speaking an excellent blade for me in the usual order of things) and replaced it with a new one (an Astra Keramik Platinum, thanks to a generous reader).

I was interested to test my hypothesis.

Creed Green Irish Tweed is the final soap in my wooden-tub sequence, and the lather was satisfying, as at the price it should be, though not quite up tot he level of some of the better artisan soaps. The fragrance, however, was excellent, as given Creed’s prominence as a parfumerie it should be. RazoRock’s Bruce brush easily evoked the lather.[

With the new blade, the Baby Smooth performed perfectly: never a nick nor even the threat of one. A totally comfortable shave producing a very smooth result. A splash of Creed Green Irish Tweed EDT served as the aftershave.

Moral of the story: If a good razor suddenly starts nicking, it may be telling you it’s (past) time to change the blade.

Written by Leisureguy

5 June 2021 at 9:11 am

Posted in Shaving

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